Vegetative reproduction also known as vegetative propagation , vegetative multiplication or cloning is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or a specialized reproductive structure. Many plants naturally reproduce this way, but it can also be induced artificially. Horticulturalists have developed asexual propagation techniques that use vegetative plant parts to replicate plants. Success rates and difficulty of propagation vary greatly.
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Plants: An Introduction to Vegetative Reproduction | Biology article by D G Mackean
While asexual reproduction only involves one organism, sexual reproduction requires both a male and a female. Some plants and unicellular organisms reproduce asexually. Most mammals and fish use sexual reproduction. Some organisms like corals and komodo dragons can reproduce either sexually or asexually. But in the long term over several generations , lack of sexual reproduction compromises their ability to adapt to the environment because they do not benefit from the genetic variation introduced by sexual reproduction.
Plants can undergo natural methods of asexual reproduction, performed by the plant itself, or artificial methods, aided by humans. Natural methods of asexual reproduction include strategies that plants have developed to self-propagate. Many plants, such as ginger, onion, gladioli, and dahlia, continue to grow from buds that are present on the surface of the stem. In some plants, such as the sweet potato, adventitious roots or runners stolons can give rise to new plants.